What is it about the structure and organisation of science and technology that has led to the spectacularly successful growth of knowledge during this century? This book answers this important and much debated question in an innovative way, by using computer simulations. The computer simulation of societies and social processes is a methodology which is rapidly becoming recognised for its potential in the social sciences. This book will be among the first to apply the tools of simulation systematically to a specific domain: science and technology studies. The first introductory section is followed by three application areas: simulations of scientific discovery and theory formation; evolutionary models of science and technology; and models which explore the conditions and dependencies of scientific work.