Science and mathematics courses at GCE Advanced and undergraduate levels have become less popular than those in other subjects. OFSTED has undertaken an enquiry to determine the roots of the problem. Based on recent inspection evidence and the views of many prominent individuals and organizations, the enquiry concludes that there is no immediate problem in the supply of well-qualified young adults. However, mathematics teaching in primary schools and science teaching in secondary schools are not as strong as they should be and as success at Advanced Level might imply. There are many contributory factors which affect the quality of foundation learning in these subjects. This review describes the impact of each of these factors on mathematics and science in schools and suggests some strategies for improvement in the future.