In recent years kinetic theory has developed in many areas of the physical sciences and engineering, and has extended the borders of its traditional fields of application. This monograph is a self-contained presentation of such recently developed aspects of kinetic theory, as well as a comprehensive account of the fundamentals of the theory. Emphasizing modeling techniques and numerical methods, the book provides a unified treatment of kinetic equations not found in more focused works. Specific applications presented include plasma kinetic models, traffic flow models, granular media models, and coagulation-fragmentation problems. The work may be used for self-study, as a reference text, or in graduate-level courses in kinetic theory and its applications.